TitleSMART-lipid nanoparticles enabled mRNA vaccine elicits cross-reactive humoral responses against the omicron sub-variants.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsMahalingam G, Rachamalla HKrishnared, Arjunan P, Karuppusamy KV, Periyasami Y, Mohan A, Subramaniyam K, M S, Rajendran V, Moorthy M, Varghese GM, Mohankumar KM, Thangavel S, Srivastava A, Marepally S
JournalMol Ther
Date Published2024 Feb 27

The continual emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has necessitated the development of broad cross-reactive vaccines. Recent findings suggest that enhanced antigen presentation could lead to cross-reactive humoral responses against the emerging variants. Toward enhancing the antigen presentation to dendritic cells (DCs), we developed a novel shikimoylated mannose receptor targeting lipid nanoparticle (SMART-LNP) system that could effectively deliver mRNAs into DCs. To improve the translation of mRNA, we developed spike domain-based trimeric S1 (TS1) mRNA with optimized codon sequence, base modification, and engineered 5' and 3' UTRs. In a mouse model, SMART-LNP-TS1 vaccine could elicit robust broad cross-reactive IgGs against Omicron sub-variants, and induced interferon-γ-producing T cells against SARS-CoV-2 virus compared with non-targeted LNP-TS1 vaccine. Further, T cells analysis revealed that SMART-LNP-TS1 vaccine induced long-lived memory T cell subsets, T helper 1 (Th1)-dominant and cytotoxic T cells immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Importantly, SMART-LNP-TS1 vaccine produced strong Th1-predominant humoral and cellular immune responses. Overall, SMART-LNPs can be explored for precise antigenic mRNA delivery and robust immune responses. This platform technology can be explored further as a next-generation delivery system for mRNA-based immune therapies.

Alternate JournalMol Ther
PubMed ID38414245